Digital Solutions for Canadian Municipalities

The past few months have been challenging for everyone as we change the way we live, play and work. Many industries have been forced to pivot and find digital solutions to continue serving their customers in the “new normal”. Canadian municipalities are no different. With many municipal offices closed to the public or working at a reduced capacity, there has never been a better time to start introducing digital solutions to work safer and work smarter. Here are some great digital solutions from Canadian muniSERV members to get you started.

 

Citizen Engagement/Customer Service

 

 AccessE11 is a Municipal 311, Citizen Issue and Relationship Management platform designed to provide small to mid-sized municipalities with a simple, cost-effective means to manage citizen issues. The platform drives simplicity, reduced administration, stronger decision making and better compliance across specific areas of focus within local government operations. Citizens can report issues and monitor the status of their issue digitally, improving customer service and operational transparency.

 

Smart City/IoT

 

 Trilliant has revolutionized how municipalities, cities, energy providers and utilities manage their mission-critical operations. Trilliant connects the world of things (IoT) and incorporates Smart City functionality to new or existing networks. Municipalities can improve the efficiency of their offerings through the implementation of things like advanced metering infrastructure for water, electricity and gas, smart street lighting, smart network sensors and so much more.

 

Treasury

 

 Clik2Pay  is a customer billing payments solution that allows citizens to receive and pay their tax bills or other municipal invoices directly from their smartphone. Municipalities benefit from quicker payments and simplifed bill collection, all for less than it costs to pay by debit or credit card.

 

Payroll Efficiency

 

 Mother Clock  Inc. is a fully integrated time tracking payroll platform that is modernizing payroll technology. This tablet-based time tracking service is the solution for businesses that want to abandon paper-based processes.  Mobile employees can use their smartphones to clock-in/out with GPS time tracking, increasing accountability.

 

Cyber Security & Training

 

 RiskAware provides municipalities with an Information and Cyber Security advantage through governance, training, education and risk management. They can help you assess your digital risks before getting started.

 

Digital Transformation Consulting

 

 ArchITectAbility provides IT Advisory, Assurance, Architecture and Governance expert services as well as Business Process Re-engineering offerings. If you’re not sure where to start your digital transformation, here you go!

 

These are just a few of the great Canadian companies that are helping municipalities go digital. 

 

Search our  Find a  Consultant database by service, business name, province or city, for even more of our members’ innovative digital solutions, to help municipalities simplify processes and find efficiencies! 

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Risk Complacency

Why should you have a cyclical strategy to your risk and security?

Risk Complacency. You run the risk of being complacent. The one man-made hazard that is probably the easiest to avoid and the largest threat to any sized business, organization, government, event, institution, and book club. Okay, maybe not the book club.

 

So, what happened?

It was quiet. It was nice, there was a sense of security. Unfortunately, that feeling is usually supplemented with a lack of awareness. A lack of awareness of threats, dangers to your organization, those deficiencies that slowly creep up but yet can quickly hammer down all the previous work.

Plan out the work to get your organization on a cyclical strategy to address, manage and mitigate your risk and security threats.

Once planned out. Execute the plan. Do what you say you are going to do…and don’t stop.

Need help? We can Help.

It starts with a conversation.

As we say…Plan the Work. Work the Plan.

Should your Municipality need assistance, contact Michael White Group today, and we will be happy to answer your questions or provide quotations.

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Organizational Resiliency – What else is it good for?

What else does organizational resiliency do for the organization aside from being able to carry on during and after a disruptive event?

  • Reduces stress – it reduces stress in those managing and working prior to, during and after an event
  • Increase in trust and confidence – employees believe in the leadership, each other, and the plan to move through an event
  • Reduces absenteeism – people are comfortable and confident in the decision making of their peers and the responsibilities they have
  • Improvement in physical health and wellbeing – with strong mental health comes stronger and maintained physical health
  • Productivity increases – a happy workforce wants to produce
  • An alert workforce – reduction in accident and workplace injuries
  • Learning power – with overall personal health and wellbeing comes the drive, adaptability to learn and the willingness to be flexible in the event of change

There are other benefits to making your organization resilient that are not just about the bottom line.

We can help your organization in building your risk and security management program resiliency.

It starts with a conversation.

We can Help.

Plan the Work. Work the Plan.

Should your Municipality need assistance, contact Michael White Group today, and we will be happy to answer your questions or provide quotations.

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A Summer to Save Restaurants

With Toronto’s Phase 2, beginning on June 24th, restaurants are poised for opening dine-in patio service, but business will be nowhere near normal for our favourite city eats.

 

Restaurants are facing a summer of only patio dining and take out, cutting their normal guest capacity by 50 – 80 %.  With restaurants already closed for months, we can’t expect that a few patio tables will save them.

outdoor cafe and social distancing 

A plan that is bolder than CafeTO is needed,” said architect and urban planner Naama Blonder, principal of Smart Density.

 

To support one of Toronto’s favourite sectors, two local companies, Trans-Plan and Smart Density take a disruptive approach to CafeTO with “Summer to Save Restaurants.” Expanding patio seating, and allowing access to lots of business storefronts would be created through pedestrian-only use of city streets, every Thursday to Sunday.

 

“We’re in this together, and together we need to pivot to support each other make it through these difficult times. If that means we need to take some detours to help our restaurants out – I think that’s what we should do,” said Trans-Plan CEO Shadi Hagag. 

 

Toronto city officials, residents and tourists have the power to reconfigure and re-imagine local communities. 

 

“We are urban designers and transportation engineers who have opened up our creative toolbox to re-imagine our streetscape. It’s not the normal configuration, because this is designed to be the Summer to Save Restaurants,” said Smart Density architect, Naama Blonder. 

 

By redirecting pedestrian flow into the centre of the street, and enabling restaurants and storefronts to expand into the road – the plan encourages safe movement, service and experiences for all stakeholders. By limiting flow to only pedestrians, we mitigate the risk of confusion, flow disturbance and promote physical distancing.  And we bring back jobs and consumption to the economy.

 

 The Summer to Save Restaurants plan derives from the success of the King Street Pilot Project. For King Street, the priority was Transit – for the Summer to Save Restaurants Project – the priority is given to the Restanteur, the Customer and the Pedestrian.

 

Some cities have kicked off this idea early, encouraging both business owners and residents that safe experiences and business continuity can go hand in hand. The City of Guelph has pushed forward with making the downtown core pedestrian-only a few days a week, and St. Catherines too, has followed suit.

 

For support in ensuring your designs and plans can push forward, don’t hesitate to reach out to Trans-Plan for temporary design and conceptual plans!

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Local Loops & Linkages: Bringing the Circular Economy to Canadian Cities

In March 2020, the EU released its new Circular Economy Action Plan to accelerate the transformational change required by the European Green Deal. The plan aims to streamline the regulatory framework for a sustainable future, maximizing new opportunities from the transition and “[making] circularity work for people, regions and cities.” 

Moving away from the linear “take-make-waste” industrial model, a circular economy involves “gradually decoupling economic activity from the consumption of finite resources, and designing waste out of the system.” By keeping products and materials in use, a circular economy not only has immediate environmental benefits for cities, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and waste, but also provides social and economic benefits. 

 

Many cities across the EU have started to make circularity work. Amsterdam was among the first to carry out a scan to identify areas in which circular business models could be applied and has since launched over 70 initiatives to meet its goal of becoming fully circular by 2050. Amsterdam’s circular economy initiatives are now expected to create up to 1,900 new jobs. By embedding circular economy principles into urban planning practices, London is expected to double the use of 20% of its buildings by 2036 thus saving millions annually. city view from top down

 

Cities as Key Actors in the Circular Economy 

Cities make up two-thirds of global energy demand, consume 75% of the world’s natural resources, produce more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions and 50% of global waste. The current cycle of growth associated with urbanization and globalization puts considerable and unsustainable pressure on the natural environment. A circular economy would create opportunities for the most optimal and climate-friendly use of city resources and land.

 

Cities are well-equipped to make the shift to a circular economy. Cities generate over 80% of the global GDP and remain hubs of innovation and connection between government, businesses and private actors. Municipal governments are closest to their residents, and much more “agile and flexible” than higher orders of government when it comes to implementing new initiatives. Cities also have significant purchasing power that they can leverage to positively impact a shift towards circular models for their suppliers.

 

Circular Economy in Canadian Cities 

Canadian cities have already been recognized as leaders in the fight against climate change. Some Canadian cities, including Toronto and Montreal, have committed to zero waste futures and transitioning to a circular economy. Toronto recently introduced its circular economy procurement implementation plan to use the city’s purchasing power to reduce waste and enable social and economic prosperity. 

Though Canadian cities face constitutional and financial restrictions in exercising their powers, courts are generally reluctant to interfere with the decisions of democratically elected councils to increase the wellbeing of their municipalities. Ontario municipalities, in particular, have broad powers in a number of areas including waste management, business licensing, the protection of persons or property, including consumer protection, and the economic, social and environmental well-being of the municipality, including respecting climate change.

 

In their circular economy initiatives, Canadian cities can follow the example of Brussels, which created a fund that provides grants to circular economy businesses and research projects. They can additionally use other forms of public-private partnerships or bonusing mechanisms to support circular business models. Canadian municipalities can include circular economy principles in their official plans to influence land use planning decisions that lead to circular designs for neighbourhoods, an increase in sharing infrastructure and in the modularity of building materials. They can look to urban planning guidelines that include criteria for circular building implemented by cities like Amsterdam to promote the use of secondary and residual materials. They can ban or impose fees on materials that they receive at their waste management facilities or landfills

 

These examples highlight the powerful role that Canadian cities can play to be sustainable, resilient and thriving even in the face of threats as great as the degradation of the natural environment and climate change. As cities work toward realizing sustainable futures, transitioning to a circular economy can bolster their efforts, and at the same time increase the quality of urban life. 

 

By Denisa Mertiri and Alexandra Potamianos

For more information on how to make the circular economy work in cities, contact Denisa Mertiri at [email protected]

 

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Redesigning Streets for a Safer Tomorrow – Our COVID19 Temporary Normal

The month of May and early June has brought forth some innovative change – which some would see as long overdue. Toronto Mayor John Tory unveiled a plan to open more space for pedestrians and cyclists in congested areas as the province begins to reopen its doors in a post-COVID-19 world.

cyclists on Toronto city streets

The ActiveTO initiative set its aim on closing select major roads to car traffic in exchange for more room for walking and cycling. Additionally, the city plans to expand bicycle lane infrastructure and introduce traffic calming measures in local neighbourhoods to enhance the safety of pedestrians and cyclists. The city has now allocated 65 kilometres of quiet streets among 32 neighbourhoods. Some of us have already experienced these changes and felt their positive impact. 

It has become an inevitable realization for municipalities that residents are becoming eager to flock outdoors as the weather warms and the number of active COVID-19 cases gradually declines. The question now becomes not how cities can keep people inside, but how communities can strategically redesign their infrastructure to allow residents to get outside while continuing to safely obey social distancing measures. 

 

Each municipality will have unique challenges when reopening, and the proper planning of municipal infrastructure is critical. Although there is no cookie-cutter answer for the temporary redesign of city roads, there have already been successful initiatives taken by municipalities as they rethink their streets in anticipation of the return to regular life. 

 

Extending Bicycle Infrastructure

Cycling has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation for residents during the pandemic. It offers a chance for people to exercise and make local trips to essential locations, all while maintaining a safe social distance from other users. The World Health Organization has encouraged people to walk or cycle whenever possible. Experts boast that 30-60 minutes of physical activity per day can boost your immune system and help keep viruses at bay. Along with Toronto, many cities are moving towards implementing additional cycling infrastructure during this time. 

In Canada, Vancouver, Calgary, and Winnipeg have each allocated over 15 kilometres of additional bike lanes throughout their neighbourhoods since the beginning of the pandemic. In Philadelphia, cycling trips have increased by more than 150% and public bike-share programs across North America are experiencing a steep increase in users over the past month. People who usually rely on public transportation are finding cycling to be a safer alternative that allows them to avoid crowded buses and subways.

 

Expanding Sidewalks 

With the decrease in vehicle traffic as a result of the closure of many businesses and services, cities have opted to provide temporary walkways extending onto streets to allow residents to maintain an appropriate distance from one another. Montreal’s Plateau Mont-Royal borough has introduced family and active streets – a campaign that closes select local streets to through traffic to make room for pedestrians to roam freely. New York City Mayor Bill De Blasio recently announced the opening of 40 miles worth of open streets throughout May. 

 

garbage can

Smaller cities have also been quick to answer the call to reorganize their communities. Kitchener has installed temporary bollards to extend sidewalks along the city’s main street to allow for more room for physical distancing. Drummondville has closed its Curé-Marchand bridge to all motorized vehicles, and St. Johns has decided to widen the sidewalks of high-volume streets to open up more space for pedestrians and cyclists.

One-Way Sidewalks, Eliminating Beg Buttons, and More

Aside from the large-scale infrastructure adjustments that are occurring, some cities are looking towards more creative solutions to help curb the community spread of the COVID-19 virus. Sections of sidewalk along Highbury Avenue in London, Ontario have been converted into one-way walkways where it has been difficult to maintain a 2-meter buffer from others.

walking on streets in London Ontario

Places such as Calgary, Edmonton, and Hamilton have eliminated beg buttons at crosswalks and intersections. These cities have completely automated their signal cycles at intersections so that pedestrians can avoid pressing frequently touched buttons if they want to cross a street. Places like Boston, Portland, and New York City are offering free bike-share memberships for health care workers and other essential labourers. Additionally, Calgary is choosing to not advertise streets where they have extended sidewalks and bicycle lanes to not attract crowds in these areas. 

 

Take Action

The initial fear that creating more space for alternative forms of transportation would create problems of overcrowding seems to have subsided among a majority of city officials. As cities worldwide begin to roll-out post-COVID-19 mobility plans, it is undeniable that more residents will be outside for essential trips and exercise. Instead of eliminating space for movement, cities must restructure themselves to allocate enough space for its residents to move freely and safely.

As we see staged reopening within Ontario, consider reimagining your urban spaces, shared spaces and hot spots within your neighbourhoods. Offering residents the chance to get involved in the conversation whether it be through social media, online public platforms, or email can encourage those measures in place, are enjoyed and followed.  

 

Trans-Plan is committed to helping aid your community in its gradual reopening. Our COVID-19 Temporary Planning Services integrate professional engineering expertise and proprietary modeling capability to assist in providing innovative services for disaster-ready plans. We offer customized redesign plans for temporary conditions.

 

Written By: Trans-Plan team member – Ryan McClelland

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Municipalities and the Use of Technology During the Pandemic

If our current situation due to COVID-19 has had any positive impact, it is that municipalities who have been hesitant to adopt technology are now realizing just how vital it is. In the past, many municipal employees were unable to work from home due to technology limitations and concerns about the protection of confidential information. Let’s take a look at how some municipalities are adapting to the “new normal”.

 

WASAGA BEACH, ONTARIO

While other municipalities have set up a system allowing many staff to work from home instead of reporting to town offices, in the case of Wasaga Beach, the risk of an information breach has prevented them from allowing staff to work off-site.

“We had a cyber-attack almost three years ago that has made us wary of the security of confidential information being transmitted over the Internet from off-site locations,” said Communications Officer Michael Gennings.

“We have implemented many of the measures that other municipalities have, including work shifts to increase physical distancing. Should the pandemic situation change, the municipality will consider its options at that time.”

“Staff that must stay home are required to use vacation time or explore a leave. The bulk of our workforce remains onsite. Some have taken leaves.”

Wasaga Beach council is meeting via video conference for regular meetings, and in council chambers for closed session meetings.

 

MEDICINE HAT, ALBERTA

The City of Medicine Hat has laid off 170 workers – about 15% of its workforce – and has deferred filling many summer positions as it wrestles with closures and budget stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

City Hall is attempting to conduct as much business as possible, but with less physical interaction and higher safety standards. “The City of Medicine Hat has taken the approach that it’s business as usual during an unusual time,” said Dennis Egert, the city’s corporate services commissioner,  pointing to online, teleconferencing, or directing resident queries via email rather than in-person meetings. 

 

NOVA SCOTIA

Despite the roadblocks presented by COVID-19, Nova Scotia’s municipal elections will go forward as scheduled. Electors from all 49 provincial municipalities will go to the polls on October 17 in accordance with the Municipal Elections Act stipulation that elections be held every four years on the third Saturday in October.

Chuck Porter, Minister of the province’s municipal affairs department, told reporters “At this point, we see no reason why municipal elections can’t move forward. We’re all adapting to do business differently these days and certainly we will work with (municipalities) to offer support where we can.

“We’ve done things in the past like electronic voting, by-phone voting in some circumstances. So I think there are a number of options that are out there for us to be able to vote this coming fall.”

How is your municipality dealing with social distancing, council meetings, and more? We would love to hear from you! Drop us a line and let us know how you are doing … [email protected]

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Pandemic/Epidemic Business toolKIT

We are deeply focused on keeping your employees, customers, and suppliers safe while working, visiting, or conducting business at your facilities and supporting your business operations.

The Michael White Group International and Hilt International Security have partnered together in order to create a dynamic resource that is continuously growing, developing, and being  revised to keep you informed of the latest requirements, new best practices, and procedures.

As we all continue to navigate our  ‘new normal’, we have tapped into our global resources to develop a toolKIT that lays out processes to raise awareness of new health and well-being protocols and potentially helpful practices for cross-functional teamwork, operating discipline, and training for employees.

While it is not a one-size-fits-all approach, the Pandemic/Epidemic Business toolKIT includes practical recommendations, based on guidelines from Health Canada and World Health Organization, that could be tailored for different  businesses (when required) to address various scenarios they may face when returning to work. Regular updates will be made to the toolKIT based on real-time feedback. The toolkit covers a wide range of topics, including:

•      Step-by-step guides for setting up a pandemic response team

•      Cleaning and disinfection procedures

•      Staggering shifts and lunch breaks and other physical distancing strategies

•      On-site health screening

•      Protocols for isolating employees who become ill at work

•      & more.

This has been a difficult time for everyone, and re-establishing a workplace where employees feel comfortable performing their jobs safely is a multi-faceted challenge. It is our hope that by developing and providing this resource we can help your organization accomplish and adapt to the new operating protocols in today’s still ever challenging conditions.

Should your Municipality be open to exploring the need, whilst accessing our  toolKIT to assist you during  the re-opening, and re-populating of your facilities, contact Michael White Group International today, and in partnership with Hilt International Security we will be happy to assist.

 

 

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Is Your Municipality Ready for a Disruptive Event? Business Continuity Planning 101

Every municipality needs an Emergency Management Program.

There are a number of components that make up a comprehensive emergency management program, (i.e. Emergency Response Plan, Business Continuity Plan, Communications Plan, Employee & Family Support Plan, Pandemic Plan, etc.).

When I was with the Office of the Fire Marshal I was responsible for emergency management and the development of these plans for the OFM. And now in these times of global uncertainty, I am once again reminded of just how important it is for organizations to have them – and particularly a Business Continuity Plan (BCP) in place.

What is a BCP?

A BCP is a plan that outlines the critical services to be delivered during a disruptive event and how full operations are going to be resumed after the event.

A good rule of thumb to keep in mind is, your BCP needs to address planning/mitigation, response, recovery and restoration.

Generally, a Business Continuity Plan outlines:

  • Who is responsible for recovery actions

  • What is needed to deliver, resume, continue, or restore the municipality’s services

  • Where to go to resume operations if necessary, and,

  • How the municipality’s critical services and operations will continue to be provided during a disruptive event (detailed procedures for provision, recovery, resumption and restoration of services)

Basic Elements of a BCP

It is important to remember that while the unique characteristics of your municipality must be reflected in the plan, the basic elements detailed below represent the foundation on which every BCP should be built.

  • Gather the necessary Baseline Information – This is used to identify municipal services, where the service is located, who uses the service, dependencies, alternate service delivery, critical infrastructure, etc.

  • Conduct a Business Services Risk Assessment Needed to help identify areas of potential vulnerabilities and to examine current and necessary control measures to mitigate threats.

  • Undertake a Business Impact Analysis – Gathers information concerning the exposure and impact on the service should the service experience significant disruptions and assesses the potential financial and non-financial impacts of a disruptive event.

  • Develop a Business Continuity Recovery Strategy – Assesses the advantages and disadvantages, estimated associated costs and determines the recommended strategy for each critical service and the resources that may be necessary for quick recovery.

  • Identify Emergency Response and Operational Protocols & Procedures – This is a checklist of protocols and procedures that help to simplify the necessary activities even further (i.e. notification protocols, call trees, etc.).

  • Create the Business Continuity Plan

Of course, once it’s completed don’t let your BCP collect dust. Keep it dynamic by updating it to reflect any changes to personnel or processes, and practice it with your team so when a disruptive event occurs, like we’re experiencing now with the COVID-19 pandemic, your organization will be ready and well prepared to resume operations.

If you’d like to receive a free Business Continuity Plan template to help you get started or information on any of the other emergency management plans mentioned, please feel free to contact me. Susan Shannon at s[email protected]

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Is Road Salt Really Worth the Risk?

If you live somewhere that has a snowy winter, there is no doubt you are familiar with ‘ice-melts’ or ‘road-salts’ being used to create traction and melt ice build-up. Using an ice melt or salt makes it safer to get around outside, both on foot and while driving during these cold, snowy months. You can pick up a bag of salt at most corner stores, hardware stores etc. When a storm is coming, you’ll see fleets of large trucks spreading salt across the city streets and parking-lots alike. But – What is the ‘salt’ being used to melt the snow? Is it safe? Below we will outline 3 of the most common ingredients of ice melt products, and the potential effects on humans, children, pets and the environment.

Sodium Chloride:

Sodium Chloride is the natural mined mineral form of table salt – rock salt or halite as it is sometimes referred. Sodium Chloride is “one of the most abundant minerals on Earth and an essential nutrient for many animals and plants. It is naturally found in seawater and in underground rock formations.” Source Sodium Chloride is generally inexpensive in comparison to other types of ice-melting products, however its “lowest effective temperature [is] 20°F (-7°C), [making it a] relatively slow and ineffective ice-melter when temperatures are coldest.” Source

Section 6 from Sodium Chloride or Salt Safety Data Sheet from Compass Minerals showing accidental spill measures

Every year in Canada, “5 million tonnes of road salt is used to de-ice roadways.” Source This salt “dissolves into sodium and chlorine ions” which often make its way to waterways, posing risks on aquatic life.  Other negative side effects can include “harm […] to plant life, so it shouldn’t be used near vegetated areas.” Rock salt is also “similarly dangerous to pets [and wildlife] since it causes disorders when ingested.” Source

Calcium Chloride:

Unlike Sodium Chloride, Calcium Chloride works in quite extreme temperatures. Calcium Chloride is “able to melt ice at a lower temperature point of -20°F (-29°C) … Over exposure […] can harm lawns and other plants if deicer is over applied.” Source Calcium Chloride not only melts ice at a lower temperature but it also melts it quicker, this is due to the heat it gives off as it dissolves after contact with water. “[A] study found that at -7 C (20 F), [Calcium Chloride] has 22% more penetration after 10 minutes and 38% after 30 minutes than [Magnesium Chloride].” Source

Section 6 from Calcium Chloride Safety Data Sheet Revere Pioneer RIM showing accidental spill measures

Magnesium Chloride:

Similar to Calcium Chloride, Magnesium Chloride also releases heat when it encounters moisture. It can work in temperatures as low as -5°F (-20°C). Unlike other forms of salt or deicer, Magnesium Chloride dissolves quickly when it is on ice, making it effective for a shorter period, in turn causing it to be more expensive. Source  However, the water created from the rapidly melting ice also dilutes the magnesium chloride at a quicker rate than other products, making it less corrosive on roads, parking lots and other surfaces.

Section 6 from Magnesium Chloride Safety Data Sheet from Innovative Surface Solutions showing accidental spill measures
Dogs playing and walking in the snow with their owners above a list of the dangers road salt and ice melt & dogs

Each of the three ice-melt products listed above have PROS and CONS when it comes to their impact on human health and the environment. While Calcium and Magnesium Chloride were oftentimes in my research being described as less harmful to the environment – as shown on the Safety Data Sheet sections above – in large quantities they can all be dangerous, especially to pets, wildlife and aquatic life. When it comes to choosing which product to use, it is best to consider your specific scenario before deciding on your ice-melt product. Location, quantity, temperature as well as checking for other toxic ingredients are all things to consider when making your decision. Many cities, businesses and environmentalists have experimented with alternative solutions; everything from pickle brine to molasses to volcanic rock! Until an alternative replaces the use of road salts altogether be sure to take the appropriate precautions when working with ice-melt/salt products this winter.

MySDS Inc. can assist you with hazardous material compliance in your workplace… contact us for more information! 1-855-282-4537 | www.MySDS.ca

Sources:

 

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